*»¿Amphibians rarely give earliest warning of pollution
The finding could have a significant effect on the way that the environment is assessed. Conventional wisdom suggests that if an amphibian population is thriving, the area is probably clear of pollutants. But the survey shows that other species, such as shelled aquatic animals called brachiopods, may be better suited to monitoring contaminants.Amphibians are believed to be sensitive to pollutants because of their highly permeable skins, and their varied lives, which maximize their exposure: they dwell on land and water, and eat both plants and animals at various stages of their life cycles1. However, studies that have looked at how amphibians compare with other animals in their susceptibility to environmental changes have not been able to prove that they are any more vulnerable than other species2,3.To investigate how resilient amphibians really are, Jake Kerby at the University of South Dakota in Vermillion and his colleagues analysed more than 28,000 studies from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Aquatic Information Retrieval (AQUIRE) database (part of its ECOTOX system), detailing the effects of various chemical agents on aquatic species, including insects, bivalves, fish and amphibians. The team found 23,942 studies of 73 chemicals that had been tested on amphibians and many other creatures, totalling 1,075 species.They broke the chemicals down into four categories: heavy metals, inorganic compounds, phenols and pesticides, and found that amphibians were much less sensitive to chemical exposure from heavy metals, inorganics, and pesticides than many other species. The most sensitive group proved to be brachiopods, which declined dramatically in the presence of heavy metals and inorganic chemicals. Insects, unsurprisingly, were the most sensitive to insecticides, whereas amphibians were most sensitive only to the phenol chemicals. The results appear in Ecology Letters4.Conservation symbols "Based on these findings the presence of amphibians at a site is not a reliable indicator that the site is free of impact," says Kerby. He explains that the loss of invertebrate biodiversity that comes before amphibians die off may be going undetected. "It is easy for people to notice the decline of something as charismatic as a frog. It is much harder to notice the disappearance of freshwater mussels," he says."The data are quite striking", says Sharon Lawler, an aquatic ecologist at the University of California, Davis. "it is intriguing to consider the idea that amphibians are more like miners in a coal mine than canaries. Like miners, they are sensitive to contaminants, but they may not be the first to show symptoms."This work "overturns the common view that amphibians are, on average, more sensitive to environmental contaminants than other organisms", says Michael Benard at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. "Hopefully, this work will lead to more effective regulation of contaminants that takes into account the diverse sensitivities of different organisms."Even though amphibians did not show high sensitivities to all pollutants, they are far from useless as pollution indicators, points out environmental toxicologist Rick Relyea at the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Amphibians certainly seem to be poor indicators of contaminant effects on invertebrates, but they may be much more effective at foreshadowing the decline of fellow vertebrate species, including humans. "We don't have an answer yet," he says."A study like this will help us determine which species to most closely watch," says Steven Bradbury, deputy director of the office of pesticide programmes at the Environmental Protection Agency in Washington, DC. He adds that wherever possible, the agency already monitors more than just amphibians to assess contamination in a particular area.The finding should not downplay the need for amphibian conservation, adds Claude Gascon, executive vicepresident and cochair of the amphibian spe******t group at Conservation International in Arlington, Virginia. "Red List data still show that amphibians have the highest incidence of threat and that cannot be ignored," he says. "With their noted sensitivities to ultraviolet light, habitat destruction, disease, and climate change, amphibians are dying a death by a thousand cuts. Amphibians still give a comprehensive picture of the global environment that we need to consider." ghd store
Unless you possess the drifting skills of legendary rally driver Stig Blomqvist, the recalibrated Sport Plus mode is perfect, allowing freedom to enjoy slides without ever losing control of the car. It's clear the old Cayman's natural balance has been carried over.
*»¿New Porsche Cayman S
The new electromechanical steering was a bone of contention for the 911, but worked betteron the Boxster. Judging by the Cayman's sharp reactions, it's not a problem here, either.
"Basically, the car is ready to sell," chief test engineer Alex Ernst told us. "But there were final adjustments to the production tools. That's why we're here. We have to make sure that our cars offer top quality. So far, we are satisfied with the results."
Being a passenger in a brand new version of one of the world's greatest drivers' cars is frustrating, especially when there's a snowbound wilderness to play in. But despite not driving ourselves, we learned plenty about the latest Cayman's capabilities. Even on snow, it has loads of grip, which bodes well for the car's ability on tarmac. And when the rear tyres do let go, supreme balance and agility are still there in abundance. It looks and sounds better, too, with a higherquality interior. As a result, the Cayman continues to nip at the 911's heels. wholesale ugg boots
Carfax has exclusivity agreements with several popular usedcar sites. In practical terms, that means dealers selling vehicles on those sites can only show vehicle history reports from Carfax, which effectively shuts out the competition.
Carfax charges more for vehicle history reports than its competitors.
are now suing Carfax for violating antitrust laws. And according the lawyer handling the case Leonard Bellavia of Bellavia Blatt Andron Crossett in Mineola, New York dozens more dealerships have submitted paperwork to join the suit.
Adding a little bit of spice to the plaintiff's case is the fact that Carfax reports aren't always accurate. Carfax and its competitors rely largely on the National Motor Vehicle Title Information System, a database of insurance claims and other data pulled from 41 states. Vehicle info from other regions can be left out of those reports, resulting in inaccuracies, not unlike the kind recently uncovered on 20/20. (Check out that news segment, embedded above.) official burberry outlet
The University of Florida's wildlife extension describes the call of the giant toad as a lowpitched trill with a chorus that sounds like an idling diesel engine. But, even Speer could not definitely say that the latenight sounds recently heard were from this widespread exotic species.
"Everyone hears something different," she said. "It depends on life experiences."
While Speer agrees that the local frog season usually begins when rains start in June, she said recent rain has triggered calls from amphibians.
"It could be almost anything insects and amphibians," Cassani said. "You hear all kinds of things at night. There are some tree crickets that are pretty loud this time of year."
Q: We live in a community off of Livingston Road near Royal Palm Academy. we would hear noises that truly sound like woodpeckers on steroids! Originally, we thought it was "whining" from the electrical wires that run along Livingston. It is loud enough that we need to turn the TV up louder so we don't hear it and there is no way we can leave our windows open at night. Can you solve this mystery? Thanks. burberry outlet
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Chill the cakes in the refrigerator for another 45 minutes.
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Coat the cakes with frosting. Run the spatula under hot water and run it over the cakes to smooth over the frosting.
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